Programs are designed and implemented to create change, often throughout multiple levels of a program; but at the very basic level, change occurs in individuals. Quoting Albert Wenger, “change creates information.” Information about changes that occurred during a program is essential to evaluate a program.
According to Radhakrishna and Relado (2009), a program might influence change in a program participant’s knowledge, attitude, skills, aspirations (KASA), and behavior. Another common set of individual outcomes called KAP include knowledge, attitudes, and practices (for example, see Chaplowe (2008)). At their intersection, changes in:
- what participants understand (knowledge),
- what participants use to base their decisions (attitudes/beliefs), and
- what participants eventually enact (practices/behaviors)
lead to useful information about the potential impact of a program.